request @ 2.73.0 - README.md
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# Request - Simplified HTTP client
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[![npm package](https://nodei.co/npm/request.png?downloads=true&downloadRank=true&stars=true)](https://nodei.co/npm/request/)
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[![Build status](https://img.shields.io/travis/request/request/master.svg?style=flat-square)](https://travis-ci.org/request/request)
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[![Coverage](https://img.shields.io/codecov/c/github/request/request.svg?style=flat-square)](https://codecov.io/github/request/request?branch=master)
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[![Coverage](https://img.shields.io/coveralls/request/request.svg?style=flat-square)](https://coveralls.io/r/request/request)
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[![Dependency Status](https://img.shields.io/david/request/request.svg?style=flat-square)](https://david-dm.org/request/request)
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[![Known Vulnerabilities](https://snyk.io/test/npm/request/badge.svg?style=flat-square)](https://snyk.io/test/npm/request)
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[![Gitter](https://img.shields.io/badge/gitter-join_chat-blue.svg?style=flat-square)](https://gitter.im/request/request?utm_source=badge)
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## Super simple to use
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Request is designed to be the simplest way possible to make http calls. It supports HTTPS and follows redirects by default.
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```js
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var request = require('request');
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request('http://www.google.com', function (error, response, body) {
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if (!error && response.statusCode == 200) {
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console.log(body) // Show the HTML for the Google homepage.
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}
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})
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```
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## Table of contents
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- [Streaming](#streaming)
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- [Forms](#forms)
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- [HTTP Authentication](#http-authentication)
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- [Custom HTTP Headers](#custom-http-headers)
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- [OAuth Signing](#oauth-signing)
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- [Proxies](#proxies)
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- [Unix Domain Sockets](#unix-domain-sockets)
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- [TLS/SSL Protocol](#tlsssl-protocol)
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- [Support for HAR 1.2](#support-for-har-12)
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- [**All Available Options**](#requestoptions-callback)
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Request also offers [convenience methods](#convenience-methods) like
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`request.defaults` and `request.post`, and there are
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lots of [usage examples](#examples) and several
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[debugging techniques](#debugging).
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---
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## Streaming
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You can stream any response to a file stream.
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```js
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request('http://google.com/doodle.png').pipe(fs.createWriteStream('doodle.png'))
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```
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You can also stream a file to a PUT or POST request. This method will also check the file extension against a mapping of file extensions to content-types (in this case `application/json`) and use the proper `content-type` in the PUT request (if the headers don’t already provide one).
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```js
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fs.createReadStream('file.json').pipe(request.put('http://mysite.com/obj.json'))
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```
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Request can also `pipe` to itself. When doing so, `content-type` and `content-length` are preserved in the PUT headers.
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```js
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request.get('http://google.com/img.png').pipe(request.put('http://mysite.com/img.png'))
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```
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Request emits a "response" event when a response is received. The `response` argument will be an instance of [http.IncomingMessage](https://nodejs.org/api/http.html#http_class_http_incomingmessage).
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```js
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request
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.get('http://google.com/img.png')
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.on('response', function(response) {
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console.log(response.statusCode) // 200
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console.log(response.headers['content-type']) // 'image/png'
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})
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.pipe(request.put('http://mysite.com/img.png'))
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```
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To easily handle errors when streaming requests, listen to the `error` event before piping:
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```js
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request
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.get('http://mysite.com/doodle.png')
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.on('error', function(err) {
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console.log(err)
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})
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.pipe(fs.createWriteStream('doodle.png'))
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```
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Now let’s get fancy.
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```js
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http.createServer(function (req, resp) {
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if (req.url === '/doodle.png') {
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if (req.method === 'PUT') {
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req.pipe(request.put('http://mysite.com/doodle.png'))
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} else if (req.method === 'GET' || req.method === 'HEAD') {
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request.get('http://mysite.com/doodle.png').pipe(resp)
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}
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}
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})
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```
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You can also `pipe()` from `http.ServerRequest` instances, as well as to `http.ServerResponse` instances. The HTTP method, headers, and entity-body data will be sent. Which means that, if you don't really care about security, you can do:
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```js
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http.createServer(function (req, resp) {
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if (req.url === '/doodle.png') {
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var x = request('http://mysite.com/doodle.png')
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req.pipe(x)
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x.pipe(resp)
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}
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})
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```
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And since `pipe()` returns the destination stream in ≥ Node 0.5.x you can do one line proxying. :)
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```js
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req.pipe(request('http://mysite.com/doodle.png')).pipe(resp)
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```
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Also, none of this new functionality conflicts with requests previous features, it just expands them.
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```js
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var r = request.defaults({'proxy':'http://localproxy.com'})
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http.createServer(function (req, resp) {
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if (req.url === '/doodle.png') {
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r.get('http://google.com/doodle.png').pipe(resp)
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}
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})
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```
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You can still use intermediate proxies, the requests will still follow HTTP forwards, etc.
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## Forms
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`request` supports `application/x-www-form-urlencoded` and `multipart/form-data` form uploads. For `multipart/related` refer to the `multipart` API.
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#### application/x-www-form-urlencoded (URL-Encoded Forms)
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URL-encoded forms are simple.
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```js
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request.post('http://service.com/upload', {form:{key:'value'}})
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// or
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request.post('http://service.com/upload').form({key:'value'})
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// or
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request.post({url:'http://service.com/upload', form: {key:'value'}}, function(err,httpResponse,body){ /* ... */ })
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```
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#### multipart/form-data (Multipart Form Uploads)
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For `multipart/form-data` we use the [form-data](https://github.com/form-data/form-data) library by [@felixge](https://github.com/felixge). For the most cases, you can pass your upload form data via the `formData` option.
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```js
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var formData = {
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// Pass a simple key-value pair
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my_field: 'my_value',
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// Pass data via Buffers
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my_buffer: new Buffer([1, 2, 3]),
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// Pass data via Streams
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my_file: fs.createReadStream(__dirname + '/unicycle.jpg'),
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// Pass multiple values /w an Array
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attachments: [
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fs.createReadStream(__dirname + '/attachment1.jpg'),
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fs.createReadStream(__dirname + '/attachment2.jpg')
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],
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// Pass optional meta-data with an 'options' object with style: {value: DATA, options: OPTIONS}
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// Use case: for some types of streams, you'll need to provide "file"-related information manually.
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// See the `form-data` README for more information about options: https://github.com/form-data/form-data
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custom_file: {
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value: fs.createReadStream('/dev/urandom'),
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options: {
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filename: 'topsecret.jpg',
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contentType: 'image/jpg'
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}
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}
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};
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request.post({url:'http://service.com/upload', formData: formData}, function optionalCallback(err, httpResponse, body) {
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if (err) {
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return console.error('upload failed:', err);
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}
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console.log('Upload successful! Server responded with:', body);
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});
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```
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For advanced cases, you can access the form-data object itself via `r.form()`. This can be modified until the request is fired on the next cycle of the event-loop. (Note that this calling `form()` will clear the currently set form data for that request.)
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```js
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// NOTE: Advanced use-case, for normal use see 'formData' usage above
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var r = request.post('http://service.com/upload', function optionalCallback(err, httpResponse, body) {...})
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var form = r.form();
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form.append('my_field', 'my_value');
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form.append('my_buffer', new Buffer([1, 2, 3]));
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form.append('custom_file', fs.createReadStream(__dirname + '/unicycle.jpg'), {filename: 'unicycle.jpg'});
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```
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See the [form-data README](https://github.com/form-data/form-data) for more information & examples.
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#### multipart/related
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Some variations in different HTTP implementations require a newline/CRLF before, after, or both before and after the boundary of a `multipart/related` request (using the multipart option). This has been observed in the .NET WebAPI version 4.0. You can turn on a boundary preambleCRLF or postamble by passing them as `true` to your request options.
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```js
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request({
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method: 'PUT',
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preambleCRLF: true,
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postambleCRLF: true,
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uri: 'http://service.com/upload',
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multipart: [
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{
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'content-type': 'application/json',
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body: JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar', _attachments: {'message.txt': {follows: true, length: 18, 'content_type': 'text/plain' }}})
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},
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{ body: 'I am an attachment' },
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{ body: fs.createReadStream('image.png') }
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],
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// alternatively pass an object containing additional options
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multipart: {
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chunked: false,
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data: [
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{
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'content-type': 'application/json',
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body: JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar', _attachments: {'message.txt': {follows: true, length: 18, 'content_type': 'text/plain' }}})
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},
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{ body: 'I am an attachment' }
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]
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}
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},
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function (error, response, body) {
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if (error) {
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return console.error('upload failed:', error);
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}
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console.log('Upload successful! Server responded with:', body);
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})
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```
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## HTTP Authentication
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```js
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request.get('http://some.server.com/').auth('username', 'password', false);
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// or
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request.get('http://some.server.com/', {
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'auth': {
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'user': 'username',
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'pass': 'password',
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'sendImmediately': false
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}
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});
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// or
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request.get('http://some.server.com/').auth(null, null, true, 'bearerToken');
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// or
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request.get('http://some.server.com/', {
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'auth': {
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'bearer': 'bearerToken'
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}
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});
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```
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If passed as an option, `auth` should be a hash containing values:
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- `user` || `username`
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- `pass` || `password`
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- `sendImmediately` (optional)
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- `bearer` (optional)
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The method form takes parameters
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`auth(username, password, sendImmediately, bearer)`.
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`sendImmediately` defaults to `true`, which causes a basic or bearer
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authentication header to be sent. If `sendImmediately` is `false`, then
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`request` will retry with a proper authentication header after receiving a
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`401` response from the server (which must contain a `WWW-Authenticate` header
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indicating the required authentication method).
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Note that you can also specify basic authentication using the URL itself, as
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detailed in [RFC 1738](http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt). Simply pass the
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`user:password` before the host with an `@` sign:
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```js
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var username = 'username',
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password = 'password',
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url = 'http://' + username + ':' + password + '@some.server.com';
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request({url: url}, function (error, response, body) {
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// Do more stuff with 'body' here
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});
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```
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Digest authentication is supported, but it only works with `sendImmediately`
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set to `false`; otherwise `request` will send basic authentication on the
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initial request, which will probably cause the request to fail.
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Bearer authentication is supported, and is activated when the `bearer` value is
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available. The value may be either a `String` or a `Function` returning a
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`String`. Using a function to supply the bearer token is particularly useful if
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used in conjunction with `defaults` to allow a single function to supply the
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last known token at the time of sending a request, or to compute one on the fly.
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## Custom HTTP Headers
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HTTP Headers, such as `User-Agent`, can be set in the `options` object.
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In the example below, we call the github API to find out the number
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of stars and forks for the request repository. This requires a
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custom `User-Agent` header as well as https.
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```js
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var request = require('request');
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var options = {
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url: 'https://api.github.com/repos/request/request',
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headers: {
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'User-Agent': 'request'
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}
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};
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function callback(error, response, body) {
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if (!error && response.statusCode == 200) {
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var info = JSON.parse(body);
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console.log(info.stargazers_count + " Stars");
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console.log(info.forks_count + " Forks");
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}
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}
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request(options, callback);
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```
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## OAuth Signing
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[OAuth version 1.0](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5849) is supported. The
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default signing algorithm is
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[HMAC-SHA1](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5849#section-3.4.2):
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```js
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// OAuth1.0 - 3-legged server side flow (Twitter example)
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// step 1
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var qs = require('querystring')
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, oauth =
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{ callback: 'http://mysite.com/callback/'
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, consumer_key: CONSUMER_KEY
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, consumer_secret: CONSUMER_SECRET
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}
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, url = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/request_token'
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;
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request.post({url:url, oauth:oauth}, function (e, r, body) {
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// Ideally, you would take the body in the response
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// and construct a URL that a user clicks on (like a sign in button).
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// The verifier is only available in the response after a user has
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// verified with twitter that they are authorizing your app.
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// step 2
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var req_data = qs.parse(body)
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var uri = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/authenticate'
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+ '?' + qs.stringify({oauth_token: req_data.oauth_token})
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// redirect the user to the authorize uri
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// step 3
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// after the user is redirected back to your server
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var auth_data = qs.parse(body)
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, oauth =
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{ consumer_key: CONSUMER_KEY
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, consumer_secret: CONSUMER_SECRET
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, token: auth_data.oauth_token
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, token_secret: req_data.oauth_token_secret
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, verifier: auth_data.oauth_verifier
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}
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, url = 'https://api.twitter.com/oauth/access_token'
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;
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request.post({url:url, oauth:oauth}, function (e, r, body) {
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// ready to make signed requests on behalf of the user
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var perm_data = qs.parse(body)
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, oauth =
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{ consumer_key: CONSUMER_KEY
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, consumer_secret: CONSUMER_SECRET
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, token: perm_data.oauth_token
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, token_secret: perm_data.oauth_token_secret
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}
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, url = 'https://api.twitter.com/1.1/users/show.json'
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, qs =
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{ screen_name: perm_data.screen_name
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, user_id: perm_data.user_id
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}
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;
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request.get({url:url, oauth:oauth, qs:qs, json:true}, function (e, r, user) {
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console.log(user)
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})
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})
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})
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```
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For [RSA-SHA1 signing](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5849#section-3.4.3), make
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the following changes to the OAuth options object:
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* Pass `signature_method : 'RSA-SHA1'`
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* Instead of `consumer_secret`, specify a `private_key` string in
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[PEM format](http://how2ssl.com/articles/working_with_pem_files/)
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For [PLAINTEXT signing](http://oauth.net/core/1.0/#anchor22), make
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the following changes to the OAuth options object:
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* Pass `signature_method : 'PLAINTEXT'`
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To send OAuth parameters via query params or in a post body as described in The
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[Consumer Request Parameters](http://oauth.net/core/1.0/#consumer_req_param)
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section of the oauth1 spec:
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* Pass `transport_method : 'query'` or `transport_method : 'body'` in the OAuth
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options object.
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* `transport_method` defaults to `'header'`
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To use [Request Body Hash](https://oauth.googlecode.com/svn/spec/ext/body_hash/1.0/oauth-bodyhash.html) you can either
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* Manually generate the body hash and pass it as a string `body_hash: '...'`
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* Automatically generate the body hash by passing `body_hash: true`
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## Proxies
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If you specify a `proxy` option, then the request (and any subsequent
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redirects) will be sent via a connection to the proxy server.
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If your endpoint is an `https` url, and you are using a proxy, then
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request will send a `CONNECT` request to the proxy server *first*, and
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then use the supplied connection to connect to the endpoint.
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That is, first it will make a request like:
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```
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HTTP/1.1 CONNECT endpoint-server.com:80
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Host: proxy-server.com
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User-Agent: whatever user agent you specify
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```
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and then the proxy server make a TCP connection to `endpoint-server`
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on port `80`, and return a response that looks like:
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```
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HTTP/1.1 200 OK
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```
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At this point, the connection is left open, and the client is
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communicating directly with the `endpoint-server.com` machine.
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See [the wikipedia page on HTTP Tunneling](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_tunnel)
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for more information.
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By default, when proxying `http` traffic, request will simply make a
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standard proxied `http` request. This is done by making the `url`
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section of the initial line of the request a fully qualified url to
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the endpoint.
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For example, it will make a single request that looks like:
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```
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HTTP/1.1 GET http://endpoint-server.com/some-url
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Host: proxy-server.com
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Other-Headers: all go here
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request body or whatever
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```
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Because a pure "http over http" tunnel offers no additional security
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or other features, it is generally simpler to go with a
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straightforward HTTP proxy in this case. However, if you would like
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to force a tunneling proxy, you may set the `tunnel` option to `true`.
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You can also make a standard proxied `http` request by explicitly setting
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`tunnel : false`, but **note that this will allow the proxy to see the traffic
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to/from the destination server**.
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If you are using a tunneling proxy, you may set the
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`proxyHeaderWhiteList` to share certain headers with the proxy.
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You can also set the `proxyHeaderExclusiveList` to share certain
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headers only with the proxy and not with destination host.
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By default, this set is:
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```
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accept
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accept-charset
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accept-encoding
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accept-language
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accept-ranges
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cache-control
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content-encoding
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content-language
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content-length
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content-location
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content-md5
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content-range
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content-type
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connection
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date
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expect
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max-forwards
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pragma
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proxy-authorization
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referer
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te
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transfer-encoding
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user-agent
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via
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```
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Note that, when using a tunneling proxy, the `proxy-authorization`
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header and any headers from custom `proxyHeaderExclusiveList` are
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*never* sent to the endpoint server, but only to the proxy server.
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### Controlling proxy behaviour using environment variables
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The following environment variables are respected by `request`:
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* `HTTP_PROXY` / `http_proxy`
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* `HTTPS_PROXY` / `https_proxy`
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* `NO_PROXY` / `no_proxy`
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When `HTTP_PROXY` / `http_proxy` are set, they will be used to proxy non-SSL requests that do not have an explicit `proxy` configuration option present. Similarly, `HTTPS_PROXY` / `https_proxy` will be respected for SSL requests that do not have an explicit `proxy` configuration option. It is valid to define a proxy in one of the environment variables, but then override it for a specific request, using the `proxy` configuration option. Furthermore, the `proxy` configuration option can be explicitly set to false / null to opt out of proxying altogether for that request.
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`request` is also aware of the `NO_PROXY`/`no_proxy` environment variables. These variables provide a granular way to opt out of proxying, on a per-host basis. It should contain a comma separated list of hosts to opt out of proxying. It is also possible to opt of proxying when a particular destination port is used. Finally, the variable may be set to `*` to opt out of the implicit proxy configuration of the other environment variables.
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Here's some examples of valid `no_proxy` values:
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* `google.com` - don't proxy HTTP/HTTPS requests to Google.
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* `google.com:443` - don't proxy HTTPS requests to Google, but *do* proxy HTTP requests to Google.
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* `google.com:443, yahoo.com:80` - don't proxy HTTPS requests to Google, and don't proxy HTTP requests to Yahoo!
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* `*` - ignore `https_proxy`/`http_proxy` environment variables altogether.
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## UNIX Domain Sockets
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`request` supports making requests to [UNIX Domain Sockets](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_domain_socket). To make one, use the following URL scheme:
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```js
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/* Pattern */ 'http://unix:SOCKET:PATH'
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/* Example */ request.get('http://unix:/absolute/path/to/unix.socket:/request/path')
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```
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Note: The `SOCKET` path is assumed to be absolute to the root of the host file system.
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[back to top](#table-of-contents)
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---
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## TLS/SSL Protocol
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TLS/SSL Protocol options, such as `cert`, `key` and `passphrase`, can be
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set directly in `options` object, in the `agentOptions` property of the `options` object, or even in `https.globalAgent.options`. Keep in mind that, although `agentOptions` allows for a slightly wider range of configurations, the recommended way is via `options` object directly, as using `agentOptions` or `https.globalAgent.options` would not be applied in the same way in proxied environments (as data travels through a TLS connection instead of an http/https agent).
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```js
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var fs = require('fs')
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, path = require('path')
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, certFile = path.resolve(__dirname, 'ssl/client.crt')
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, keyFile = path.resolve(__dirname, 'ssl/client.key')
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, caFile = path.resolve(__dirname, 'ssl/ca.cert.pem')
596
, request = require('request');
597
598
var options = {
599
url: 'https://api.some-server.com/',
600
cert: fs.readFileSync(certFile),
601
key: fs.readFileSync(keyFile),
602
passphrase: 'password',
603
ca: fs.readFileSync(caFile)
604
};
605
606
request.get(options);
607
```
608
609
### Using `options.agentOptions`
610
611
In the example below, we call an API requires client side SSL certificate
612
(in PEM format) with passphrase protected private key (in PEM format) and disable the SSLv3 protocol:
613
614
```js
615
var fs = require('fs')
616
, path = require('path')
617
, certFile = path.resolve(__dirname, 'ssl/client.crt')
618
, keyFile = path.resolve(__dirname, 'ssl/client.key')
619
, request = require('request');
620
621
var options = {
622
url: 'https://api.some-server.com/',
623
agentOptions: {
624
cert: fs.readFileSync(certFile),
625
key: fs.readFileSync(keyFile),
626
// Or use `pfx` property replacing `cert` and `key` when using private key, certificate and CA certs in PFX or PKCS12 format:
627
// pfx: fs.readFileSync(pfxFilePath),
628
passphrase: 'password',
629
securityOptions: 'SSL_OP_NO_SSLv3'
630
}
631
};
632
633
request.get(options);
634
```
635
636
It is able to force using SSLv3 only by specifying `secureProtocol`:
637
638
```js
639
request.get({
640
url: 'https://api.some-server.com/',
641
agentOptions: {
642
secureProtocol: 'SSLv3_method'
643
}
644
});
645
```
646
647
It is possible to accept other certificates than those signed by generally allowed Certificate Authorities (CAs).
648
This can be useful, for example, when using self-signed certificates.
649
To require a different root certificate, you can specify the signing CA by adding the contents of the CA's certificate file to the `agentOptions`.
650
The certificate the domain presents must be signed by the root certificate specified:
651
652
```js
653
request.get({
654
url: 'https://api.some-server.com/',
655
agentOptions: {
656
ca: fs.readFileSync('ca.cert.pem')
657
}
658
});
659
```
660
661
[back to top](#table-of-contents)
662
663
664
---
665
666
## Support for HAR 1.2
667
668
The `options.har` property will override the values: `url`, `method`, `qs`, `headers`, `form`, `formData`, `body`, `json`, as well as construct multipart data and read files from disk when `request.postData.params[].fileName` is present without a matching `value`.
669
670
a validation step will check if the HAR Request format matches the latest spec (v1.2) and will skip parsing if not matching.
671
672
```js
673
var request = require('request')
674
request({
675
// will be ignored
676
method: 'GET',
677
uri: 'http://www.google.com',
678
679
// HTTP Archive Request Object
680
har: {
681
url: 'http://www.mockbin.com/har',
682
method: 'POST',
683
headers: [
684
{
685
name: 'content-type',
686
value: 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
687
}
688
],
689
postData: {
690
mimeType: 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
691
params: [
692
{
693
name: 'foo',
694
value: 'bar'
695
},
696
{
697
name: 'hello',
698
value: 'world'
699
}
700
]
701
}
702
}
703
})
704
705
// a POST request will be sent to http://www.mockbin.com
706
// with body an application/x-www-form-urlencoded body:
707
// foo=bar&hello=world
708
```
709
710
[back to top](#table-of-contents)
711
712
713
---
714
715
## request(options, callback)
716
717
The first argument can be either a `url` or an `options` object. The only required option is `uri`; all others are optional.
718
719
- `uri` || `url` - fully qualified uri or a parsed url object from `url.parse()`
720
- `baseUrl` - fully qualified uri string used as the base url. Most useful with `request.defaults`, for example when you want to do many requests to the same domain. If `baseUrl` is `https://example.com/api/`, then requesting `/end/point?test=true` will fetch `https://example.com/api/end/point?test=true`. When `baseUrl` is given, `uri` must also be a string.
721
- `method` - http method (default: `"GET"`)
722
- `headers` - http headers (default: `{}`)
723
724
---
725
726
- `qs` - object containing querystring values to be appended to the `uri`
727
- `qsParseOptions` - object containing options to pass to the [qs.parse](https://github.com/hapijs/qs#parsing-objects) method. Alternatively pass options to the [querystring.parse](https://nodejs.org/docs/v0.12.0/api/querystring.html#querystring_querystring_parse_str_sep_eq_options) method using this format `{sep:';', eq:':', options:{}}`
728
- `qsStringifyOptions` - object containing options to pass to the [qs.stringify](https://github.com/hapijs/qs#stringifying) method. Alternatively pass options to the [querystring.stringify](https://nodejs.org/docs/v0.12.0/api/querystring.html#querystring_querystring_stringify_obj_sep_eq_options) method using this format `{sep:';', eq:':', options:{}}`. For example, to change the way arrays are converted to query strings using the `qs` module pass the `arrayFormat` option with one of `indices|brackets|repeat`
729
- `useQuerystring` - If true, use `querystring` to stringify and parse
730
querystrings, otherwise use `qs` (default: `false`). Set this option to
731
`true` if you need arrays to be serialized as `foo=bar&foo=baz` instead of the
732
default `foo[0]=bar&foo[1]=baz`.
733
734
---
735
736
- `body` - entity body for PATCH, POST and PUT requests. Must be a `Buffer`, `String` or `ReadStream`. If `json` is `true`, then `body` must be a JSON-serializable object.
737
- `form` - when passed an object or a querystring, this sets `body` to a querystring representation of value, and adds `Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded` header. When passed no options, a `FormData` instance is returned (and is piped to request). See "Forms" section above.
738
- `formData` - Data to pass for a `multipart/form-data` request. See
739
[Forms](#forms) section above.
740
- `multipart` - array of objects which contain their own headers and `body`
741
attributes. Sends a `multipart/related` request. See [Forms](#forms) section
742
above.
743
- Alternatively you can pass in an object `{chunked: false, data: []}` where
744
`chunked` is used to specify whether the request is sent in
745
[chunked transfer encoding](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunked_transfer_encoding)
746
In non-chunked requests, data items with body streams are not allowed.
747
- `preambleCRLF` - append a newline/CRLF before the boundary of your `multipart/form-data` request.
748
- `postambleCRLF` - append a newline/CRLF at the end of the boundary of your `multipart/form-data` request.
749
- `json` - sets `body` to JSON representation of value and adds `Content-type: application/json` header. Additionally, parses the response body as JSON.
750
- `jsonReviver` - a [reviver function](https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/JSON/parse) that will be passed to `JSON.parse()` when parsing a JSON response body.
751
- `jsonReplacer` - a [replacer function](https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/JSON/stringify) that will be passed to `JSON.stringify()` when stringifying a JSON request body.
752
753
---
754
755
- `auth` - A hash containing values `user` || `username`, `pass` || `password`, and `sendImmediately` (optional). See documentation above.
756
- `oauth` - Options for OAuth HMAC-SHA1 signing. See documentation above.
757
- `hawk` - Options for [Hawk signing](https://github.com/hueniverse/hawk). The `credentials` key must contain the necessary signing info, [see hawk docs for details](https://github.com/hueniverse/hawk#usage-example).
758
- `aws` - `object` containing AWS signing information. Should have the properties `key`, `secret`. Also requires the property `bucket`, unless you’re specifying your `bucket` as part of the path, or the request doesn’t use a bucket (i.e. GET Services). If you want to use AWS sign version 4 use the parameter `sign_version` with value `4` otherwise the default is version 2. **Note:** you need to `npm install aws4` first.
759
- `httpSignature` - Options for the [HTTP Signature Scheme](https://github.com/joyent/node-http-signature/blob/master/http_signing.md) using [Joyent's library](https://github.com/joyent/node-http-signature). The `keyId` and `key` properties must be specified. See the docs for other options.
760
761
---
762
763
- `followRedirect` - follow HTTP 3xx responses as redirects (default: `true`). This property can also be implemented as function which gets `response` object as a single argument and should return `true` if redirects should continue or `false` otherwise.
764
- `followAllRedirects` - follow non-GET HTTP 3xx responses as redirects (default: `false`)
765
- `maxRedirects` - the maximum number of redirects to follow (default: `10`)
766
- `removeRefererHeader` - removes the referer header when a redirect happens (default: `false`). **Note:** if true, referer header set in the initial request is preserved during redirect chain.
767
768
---
769
770
- `encoding` - Encoding to be used on `setEncoding` of response data. If `null`, the `body` is returned as a `Buffer`. Anything else **(including the default value of `undefined`)** will be passed as the [encoding](http://nodejs.org/api/buffer.html#buffer_buffer) parameter to `toString()` (meaning this is effectively `utf8` by default). (**Note:** if you expect binary data, you should set `encoding: null`.)
771
- `gzip` - If `true`, add an `Accept-Encoding` header to request compressed content encodings from the server (if not already present) and decode supported content encodings in the response. **Note:** Automatic decoding of the response content is performed on the body data returned through `request` (both through the `request` stream and passed to the callback function) but is not performed on the `response` stream (available from the `response` event) which is the unmodified `http.IncomingMessage` object which may contain compressed data. See example below.
772
- `jar` - If `true`, remember cookies for future use (or define your custom cookie jar; see examples section)
773
774
---
775
776
- `agent` - `http(s).Agent` instance to use
777
- `agentClass` - alternatively specify your agent's class name
778
- `agentOptions` - and pass its options. **Note:** for HTTPS see [tls API doc for TLS/SSL options](http://nodejs.org/api/tls.html#tls_tls_connect_options_callback) and the [documentation above](#using-optionsagentoptions).
779
- `forever` - set to `true` to use the [forever-agent](https://github.com/request/forever-agent) **Note:** Defaults to `http(s).Agent({keepAlive:true})` in node 0.12+
780
- `pool` - An object describing which agents to use for the request. If this option is omitted the request will use the global agent (as long as your options allow for it). Otherwise, request will search the pool for your custom agent. If no custom agent is found, a new agent will be created and added to the pool. **Note:** `pool` is used only when the `agent` option is not specified.
781
- A `maxSockets` property can also be provided on the `pool` object to set the max number of sockets for all agents created (ex: `pool: {maxSockets: Infinity}`).
782
- Note that if you are sending multiple requests in a loop and creating
783
multiple new `pool` objects, `maxSockets` will not work as intended. To
784
work around this, either use [`request.defaults`](#requestdefaultsoptions)
785
with your pool options or create the pool object with the `maxSockets`
786
property outside of the loop.
787
- `timeout` - Integer containing the number of milliseconds to wait for a
788
server to send response headers (and start the response body) before aborting
789
the request. Note that if the underlying TCP connection cannot be established,
790
the OS-wide TCP connection timeout will overrule the `timeout` option ([the
791
default in Linux can be anywhere from 20-120 seconds][linux-timeout]).
792
793
[linux-timeout]: http://www.sekuda.com/overriding_the_default_linux_kernel_20_second_tcp_socket_connect_timeout
794
795
---
796
797
- `localAddress` - Local interface to bind for network connections.
798
- `proxy` - An HTTP proxy to be used. Supports proxy Auth with Basic Auth, identical to support for the `url` parameter (by embedding the auth info in the `uri`)
799
- `strictSSL` - If `true`, requires SSL certificates be valid. **Note:** to use your own certificate authority, you need to specify an agent that was created with that CA as an option.
800
- `tunnel` - controls the behavior of
801
[HTTP `CONNECT` tunneling](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_tunnel#HTTP_CONNECT_tunneling)
802
as follows:
803
- `undefined` (default) - `true` if the destination is `https`, `false` otherwise
804
- `true` - always tunnel to the destination by making a `CONNECT` request to
805
the proxy
806
- `false` - request the destination as a `GET` request.
807
- `proxyHeaderWhiteList` - A whitelist of headers to send to a
808
tunneling proxy.
809
- `proxyHeaderExclusiveList` - A whitelist of headers to send
810
exclusively to a tunneling proxy and not to destination.
811
812
---
813
814
- `time` - If `true`, the request-response cycle (including all redirects) is timed at millisecond resolution, and the result provided on the response's `elapsedTime` property.
815
- `har` - A [HAR 1.2 Request Object](http://www.softwareishard.com/blog/har-12-spec/#request), will be processed from HAR format into options overwriting matching values *(see the [HAR 1.2 section](#support-for-har-1.2) for details)*
816
- `callback` - alternatively pass the request's callback in the options object
817
818
The callback argument gets 3 arguments:
819
820
1. An `error` when applicable (usually from [`http.ClientRequest`](http://nodejs.org/api/http.html#http_class_http_clientrequest) object)
821
2. An [`http.IncomingMessage`](https://nodejs.org/api/http.html#http_class_http_incomingmessage) object
822
3. The third is the `response` body (`String` or `Buffer`, or JSON object if the `json` option is supplied)
823
824
[back to top](#table-of-contents)
825
826
827
---
828
829
## Convenience methods
830
831
There are also shorthand methods for different HTTP METHODs and some other conveniences.
832
833
834
### request.defaults(options)
835
836
This method **returns a wrapper** around the normal request API that defaults
837
to whatever options you pass to it.
838
839
**Note:** `request.defaults()` **does not** modify the global request API;
840
instead, it **returns a wrapper** that has your default settings applied to it.
841
842
**Note:** You can call `.defaults()` on the wrapper that is returned from
843
`request.defaults` to add/override defaults that were previously defaulted.
844
845
For example:
846
```js
847
//requests using baseRequest() will set the 'x-token' header
848
var baseRequest = request.defaults({
849
headers: {'x-token': 'my-token'}
850
})
851
852
//requests using specialRequest() will include the 'x-token' header set in
853
//baseRequest and will also include the 'special' header
854
var specialRequest = baseRequest.defaults({
855
headers: {special: 'special value'}
856
})
857
```
858
859
### request.put
860
861
Same as `request()`, but defaults to `method: "PUT"`.
862
863
```js
864
request.put(url)
865
```
866
867
### request.patch
868
869
Same as `request()`, but defaults to `method: "PATCH"`.
870
871
```js
872
request.patch(url)
873
```
874
875
### request.post
876
877
Same as `request()`, but defaults to `method: "POST"`.
878
879
```js
880
request.post(url)
881
```
882
883
### request.head
884
885
Same as `request()`, but defaults to `method: "HEAD"`.
886
887
```js
888
request.head(url)
889
```
890
891
### request.del / request.delete
892
893
Same as `request()`, but defaults to `method: "DELETE"`.
894
895
```js
896
request.del(url)
897
request.delete(url)
898
```
899
900
### request.get
901
902
Same as `request()` (for uniformity).
903
904
```js
905
request.get(url)
906
```
907
### request.cookie
908
909
Function that creates a new cookie.
910
911
```js
912
request.cookie('key1=value1')
913
```
914
### request.jar()
915
916
Function that creates a new cookie jar.
917
918
```js
919
request.jar()
920
```
921
922
[back to top](#table-of-contents)
923
924
925
---
926
927
928
## Debugging
929
930
There are at least three ways to debug the operation of `request`:
931
932
1. Launch the node process like `NODE_DEBUG=request node script.js`
933
(`lib,request,otherlib` works too).
934
935
2. Set `require('request').debug = true` at any time (this does the same thing
936
as #1).
937
938
3. Use the [request-debug module](https://github.com/request/request-debug) to
939
view request and response headers and bodies.
940
941
[back to top](#table-of-contents)
942
943
944
---
945
946
## Timeouts
947
948
Most requests to external servers should have a timeout attached, in case the
949
server is not responding in a timely manner. Without a timeout, your code may
950
have a socket open/consume resources for minutes or more.
951
952
There are two main types of timeouts: **connection timeouts** and **read
953
timeouts**. A connect timeout occurs if the timeout is hit while your client is
954
attempting to establish a connection to a remote machine (corresponding to the
955
[connect() call][connect] on the socket). A read timeout occurs any time the
956
server is too slow to send back a part of the response.
957
958
These two situations have widely different implications for what went wrong
959
with the request, so it's useful to be able to distinguish them. You can detect
960
timeout errors by checking `err.code` for an 'ETIMEDOUT' value. Further, you
961
can detect whether the timeout was a connection timeout by checking if the
962
`err.connect` property is set to `true`.
963
964
```js
965
request.get('http://10.255.255.1', {timeout: 1500}, function(err) {
966
console.log(err.code === 'ETIMEDOUT');
967
// Set to `true` if the timeout was a connection timeout, `false` or
968
// `undefined` otherwise.
969
console.log(err.connect === true);
970
process.exit(0);
971
});
972
```
973
974
[connect]: http://linux.die.net/man/2/connect
975
976
## Examples:
977
978
```js
979
var request = require('request')
980
, rand = Math.floor(Math.random()*100000000).toString()
981
;
982
request(
983
{ method: 'PUT'
984
, uri: 'http://mikeal.iriscouch.com/testjs/' + rand
985
, multipart:
986
[ { 'content-type': 'application/json'
987
, body: JSON.stringify({foo: 'bar', _attachments: {'message.txt': {follows: true, length: 18, 'content_type': 'text/plain' }}})
988
}
989
, { body: 'I am an attachment' }
990
]
991
}
992
, function (error, response, body) {
993
if(response.statusCode == 201){
994
console.log('document saved as: http://mikeal.iriscouch.com/testjs/'+ rand)
995
} else {
996
console.log('error: '+ response.statusCode)
997
console.log(body)
998
}
999
}
1000
)
1001
```
1002
1003
For backwards-compatibility, response compression is not supported by default.
1004
To accept gzip-compressed responses, set the `gzip` option to `true`. Note
1005
that the body data passed through `request` is automatically decompressed
1006
while the response object is unmodified and will contain compressed data if
1007
the server sent a compressed response.
1008
1009
```js
1010
var request = require('request')
1011
request(
1012
{ method: 'GET'
1013
, uri: 'http://www.google.com'
1014
, gzip: true
1015
}
1016
, function (error, response, body) {
1017
// body is the decompressed response body
1018
console.log('server encoded the data as: ' + (response.headers['content-encoding'] || 'identity'))
1019
console.log('the decoded data is: ' + body)
1020
}
1021
).on('data', function(data) {
1022
// decompressed data as it is received
1023
console.log('decoded chunk: ' + data)
1024
})
1025
.on('response', function(response) {
1026
// unmodified http.IncomingMessage object
1027
response.on('data', function(data) {
1028
// compressed data as it is received
1029
console.log('received ' + data.length + ' bytes of compressed data')
1030
})
1031
})
1032
```
1033
1034
Cookies are disabled by default (else, they would be used in subsequent requests). To enable cookies, set `jar` to `true` (either in `defaults` or `options`).
1035
1036
```js
1037
var request = request.defaults({jar: true})
1038
request('http://www.google.com', function () {
1039
request('http://images.google.com')
1040
})
1041
```
1042
1043
To use a custom cookie jar (instead of `request`’s global cookie jar), set `jar` to an instance of `request.jar()` (either in `defaults` or `options`)
1044
1045
```js
1046
var j = request.jar()
1047
var request = request.defaults({jar:j})
1048
request('http://www.google.com', function () {
1049
request('http://images.google.com')
1050
})
1051
```
1052
1053
OR
1054
1055
```js
1056
var j = request.jar();
1057
var cookie = request.cookie('key1=value1');
1058
var url = 'http://www.google.com';
1059
j.setCookie(cookie, url);
1060
request({url: url, jar: j}, function () {
1061
request('http://images.google.com')
1062
})
1063
```
1064
1065
To use a custom cookie store (such as a
1066
[`FileCookieStore`](https://github.com/mitsuru/tough-cookie-filestore)
1067
which supports saving to and restoring from JSON files), pass it as a parameter
1068
to `request.jar()`:
1069
1070
```js
1071
var FileCookieStore = require('tough-cookie-filestore');
1072
// NOTE - currently the 'cookies.json' file must already exist!
1073
var j = request.jar(new FileCookieStore('cookies.json'));
1074
request = request.defaults({ jar : j })
1075
request('http://www.google.com', function() {
1076
request('http://images.google.com')
1077
})
1078
```
1079
1080
The cookie store must be a
1081
[`tough-cookie`](https://github.com/SalesforceEng/tough-cookie)
1082
store and it must support synchronous operations; see the
1083
[`CookieStore` API docs](https://github.com/SalesforceEng/tough-cookie#cookiestore-api)
1084
for details.
1085
1086
To inspect your cookie jar after a request:
1087
1088
```js
1089
var j = request.jar()
1090
request({url: 'http://www.google.com', jar: j}, function () {
1091
var cookie_string = j.getCookieString(url); // "key1=value1; key2=value2; ..."
1092
var cookies = j.getCookies(url);
1093
// [{key: 'key1', value: 'value1', domain: "www.google.com", ...}, ...]
1094
})
1095
```
1096
1097
[back to top](#table-of-contents)
1098